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Tin Fever in Indonesia 9
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

Traditional fishermen in the village of Reboh, Bangka Belitung Islands, bring in the fish they catched in their small boats on the Indian Ocean, Indonesia. Fishing decreased due to the tin mining on the open sea. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by illegal tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets.

Les pêcheurs traditionnel apportent du poisson, village Reboh, îles Bangka Belitung, Indonésie. La pêche diminue à cause de l'exploitation sous martine de l'étain. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain sauvages. la demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 8
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

Tin mines offshore near the fishing village Reboh.
Miners repairing the rusty air pump that is supposed to provide the diver with oxygen on an improvised offshore tin mining platform. They can win 15 kg of tin per day. These mines destroy the seabed and coral reefs and kill the fish. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by illegal tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets.

Mineurs réparent la pompe à air rouillé qui est censé fournir le plongeur en oxygène. Plate-forme improvisée d'extraction de l'étain en mer. Ils peuvent extraire 15 kilo d'étain par jour. Mines d'étain off shore au large de Reboh, village de pecheurs. Ces mines détruisent les fonds sous marins, les barrières de corail et tuent les poissons. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain sauvages. la demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 7
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

Traditional fishermen in the village of Reboh, Bangka Belitung Islands, sell in the fish they catch in their small boats on the Indian Ocean, Indonesia. Fishing decreased due to tin mining in the open sea. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by illegal tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets.

Les pêcheurs traditionnel vendent du poisson, village Reboh, îles Bangka Belitung, Indonésie. La pêche diminue à cause de l'exploitation sous martine de l'étain. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain sauvages. la demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 6
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

The hidden side of high tech smartphones.
Tin or is radioactive, as seen here in an illegal tin mine in Reboh. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by illegal tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets.

Le côté caché du succès des smartphones. l'Étain est radioactif, comme on peut constater dans une mine d'étain illégale à Reboh. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain sauvages. la demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 5
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

The hidden side of high tech smartphones.
Desi Yani (27 years old) lost her two children Azzaliakbar Abdul & Juni Manohara who drowned in a tin mine on 22-11-2012. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by illegal tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets. . Illegal tin mining causes environmental damage, injuries and regular casualties among miners.

Le côté caché du succès des smartphones. Desi Yani (27 ans) a perdu ses deux enfants Abdul Azzaliakbar & Juni Manohara, noyés dans une mine d'étain le 22 /11/2012. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain sauvages. La demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes. Les Mines illégales son la cause des dommages écologiques, des blessés graves et décès (100 - 150 tous les ans) chez les mineurs.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 4
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

Workers sift sand to free the tin in the Pemali mine, the biggest legal mine in Bangka that has completely devastated the once green landscape. Operated by PT-Timah, it produces 60 tons of tin per month. Indonesia is the worlds biggest tin provider, vital for assembling smart phones and other electronic products. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets.

Mineurs libèrent l'étain avec de l'eau dans la Mine de Pemali, la plus grande mine légale de Bangka, qui a complètement dévasté un paysage qui était autrefois verte. Exploité par PT-Timah, elle produit 60 tonnes d'étain par mois. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain. La demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 3
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

Machines at work in the Pemali mine, the biggest legal mine in Bangka that has completely devastated the once green landscape. Operated by PT-Timah, it produces 60 tons of tin per month. Indonesia is the worlds biggest tin provider, vital for assembling smart phones and other electronic products. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets.

Machines à l'oeuvre dans la Mine de Pemali, la plus grande mine légale de Bangka, qui a complètement dévasté un paysage qui était autrefois verte. Exploité par PT-Timah, elle produit 60 tonnes d'étain par mois. L'Indonésie est le plus grand fournisseur mondes d'étain, vital pour l'assemblage des téléphones et autres produits électroniques. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain. La demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 44
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

Yoyok, 55, in the illegal tin mine in Reboh. Yoko has been working as a tin miner since 2000. Illegal tin mines have devastated the Bangka Island. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets. Illegal tin mining causes environmental damage, injuries and regular casualties. Approximately 100 to 150 miners die every year.

Yoyok (55 ans) cherche de l'étain depuis 2000. Mine d'étain illégale à Reboh. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain sauvages. La demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes. Les Mines illégales son la cause des dommages écologiques, des blessés graves et décès (100 - 150 tous les ans)....

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Tin Fever in Indonesia
Bangka Island, Indonesia
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

Famous for its tin deposits, paradisiacal Indonesian island Bangka is destroyed by a tin rush that is the direct consequence of the success of smartphones like IPhone and tablets like Ipad. More and more tin is needed to produce these devices, and every year Indonesia extracts 110,000 tons of tin. Due to a strong demand from manufacturers (such as Samsung and Apple), thousands of Indonesians want to benefit from the high tin prices.

"The number of illegal tin mines, on land or offshore, has increased dramatically because everyone wants a piece of the pie. We believe there are about ten thousand mines today", said Uday Ratno, director of the local NGO Walhi - Friends of the Earth. Illegal tin mining is a very dangerous activity and and accidents occur frequently. According to Utay Radno,every year, between 100 and 150 miners drown in the sea, die in landslides or from diseases (cancer, malaria).
"It's a dangerous job,we know that. But I have to earn a living to support my family", Abuysaid, a miner of 57 years old. The myriads of abandoned mines form - like a war landscape - dangerous polluted mining pits filled with water. Desi's two children, Juni and Abdul, 3 and 4 years old, drowned in such an abandoned pit.

The environment is severely damaged: Bangka Island is disfigured. Mines and craters are everywhere: along roads, in the middle of the jungle, off the coast and even in the gardens in front of houses. It is as if meteors have hit the whole island. Environmental organisations are warning for the consequences, and pointing out the devastation of the landscape, the pollution of the soil, the rivers and the sea with heavy metals and the damage done to underwater wildlife and flora. The miners who work on the sea on makeshift rafts dig for tin by sucking the sand from the sea floor. Some species of fish have already disappeared. Fisherman are obliged to fish far away from the coast in the hope to catch enough fish, says Tjong Ling Siaw, leader of the fishermen on the island. Hotel owners complain about a decline in tourism because of "dirty sea water and noise pollution".

Like the illegal "blood mineral" mining in South Kivu in DR Congo, Bangka is an evidence of the indirect consequences of the commercial success of big technology players who refuse to take responsibility- through actions like mineral tracking or environmental repair and health programs - for the damage that is done to people and the environment.

This reportage is a journey to the heart of the illegal and legal tin mines in Indonesia. I shared the lives of miners who explain why they chose to do this job and sometimes put their lives at risk for a few pounds of tin.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 10
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

Tin mines offshore near the fishing village Reboh.
Miners repairing the rusty air pump that is supposed to provide the diver with oxygen on an improvised offshore tin mining platform. They can win 15 kg of tin per day. These mines destroy the seabed, coral reefs and kill fish. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by illegal tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets.

Mineurs réparent la pompe à air rouillé qui est censé fournir le plongeur en oxygène. Plate-forme improvisée d'extraction de l'étain en mer. Ils peuvent extraire 15 kilo d'étain par jour. Mines d'étain off shore au large de Reboh, village de pecheurs. Ces mines détruisent les fonds sous marins, les barrières de corail et tuent les poissons. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain sauvages. la demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 11
By Steven Wassenaar
05 Dec 2012

The hidden side of high tech smartphones.
Umar (30 ans) had a diving accident in 2005 when he was looking for tin. He stayed in a coma for 4 days and has never been the same again. The work on the improvised offshore tin mining platform is dangerous. Tin mines offshore destroy the seabed and coral reefs and kill fish. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by illegal tin mines.

Le côté caché du succès des smartphones. Umar (30 ans) a été victime d'un accident de plongée en 2005 alors qu'il plongeait pour chercher l'étain. resté dans le coma 4 jours, gardé de séquelles de l'accident. Le travail sur des plate-formes minièrtes improvisées en mer est dangereux. Ces mines détruisent les fonds sous marins, les barrières de corail et tuent les poissons. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 2
By Steven Wassenaar
04 Dec 2012

Recent graves.
Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by illegal tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets. Illegal tin mining causes environmental damage, injuries and regular casualties among miners.

Tombes récentes. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain sauvages. la demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes.Les Mines illégales son la cause des dommages écologiques, des blessés graves et décès (100 - 150 tous les ans) chez les mineurs.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 43
By Steven Wassenaar
04 Dec 2012

Santo, 30, a tin miner, digs in his own garden to find tin sand. He manages to collect up to 3 kilos of tin per day. This illegal tin mine is the only source of income for his family in Mapur, Bangka Island, Indonesia. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets. Illegal tin mining causes environmental damage, and kills hundreds of miners every year.

Santo (30 ans), un mineur d'étain, creuse dans son jardin pour trouver de l'étain, il trouve jusqu'à 3 kilos par jour. Cette mine d'étain illégale est la seule source de revenus pour sa famille dans Mapur, île de Bangka (Indonésie). La demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes. Les Mines illégales son la cause des dommages écologiques, des blessés graves et décès (100 - 150 tous les ans) chez les mineurs.

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Tin Fever in Indonesia 28
By Steven Wassenaar
03 Dec 2012

Worker checks tin sand in the Pemali mine, the biggest legal mine in Bangka that has completely devastated the once green landscape.. Operated by PT-Timah, it produces 60 tons of tin per month. Indonesia is the worlds biggest tin provider, vital for assembling smart phones and other electronic products. Bangka Island (Indonesia) is devastated by tin mines. The demand for tin has increased due to its use in smart phones and tablets.

Mineur vérifie l'étain dans la Mine de Pemali, plus grande mine légale de Bangka. Exploité par PT-Timah. Elle produit 60 tonnes d'étain par mois. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain. La demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes Réparation d'une station de pompage d'eau. Mine de Pemali, plus grande mine légale de Bangka. Exploité par PT-Timah. Elle produit 60 tonnes d'étain par mois. L'île de Bangka (Indonésie) est dévastée par des mines d'étain. La demande de l'étain a explosé à cause de son utilisation dans les smartphones et tablettes.

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Ilva Taranto, Italy: steel industry, ...
Taranto, south Italy
By Giuseppe Carucci Lightouch International.Inc
27 Sep 2012

Toxins in Taranto city, is the main cause of tumor's increase (10 percent) on the national value. In the picture:
Chimney "E 312", the largest dioxin's producer.

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Ilva Taranto, Italy: steel industry, ...
Taranto, south Italy
By Giuseppe Carucci Lightouch International.Inc
26 Sep 2012

Large workers' protest Ilva, against closing decision issued by the judiciary for environmental disaster.

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Uganda: Slaves of Their Own Survival ...
Katwe Village, Uganda
By Piero Pomponi World Focus
17 Aug 2012

Lake Katwe - Uganda - 2012-08-17- Formed about ten thousand years ago from a volcanic eruption, Lake Katwe lies in Queen Elisabeth National Park, in Kasese district, western Uganda, bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo through Lake Edward.

Lake Katwe salt mine is a source of livelihood to over three thousand people in the area and in good times hundreds of salt miners at Lake Katwe can make a reasonable living, even if in self-slavery. Due to the hyper saline water that sucks moisture from their bodies and infuses them with toxic chemicals, there are severe health complications. The smell of hydrogen sulphide is all over the place.

For the women, when the female reproductive organs get in contact with this salty water, more often they develop uterine complications. The men on the other hand are also affected. When the male organs come into contact with this salty water they itch, and excessive scratching can cause wounds.

Surviving for a meager five dollars a day is a poor income. Coarse salt is still mined the way it was done over centuries years ago. Men, women and children all work at the mines for their own survival, including a large number of refugees from the nearby Democratic Republic of Congo. Workers extract three main products from Lake Katwe: blocks of rock salt used in curing hides; high quality salt crystals that can be sold as table salt; and salty mud that is used as salt licks for cattle.

Theses pictures show salt miners working on a salt pans pile on the shores of Lake Katwe.

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Uganda: Slaves of their own survival ...
Katwe,Village,Uganda
By Piero Pomponi World Focus
17 Aug 2012

Lake Katwe - Uganda - 2012-08-17- Formed about ten thousand years ago from a volcanic eruption, Lake Katwe lies in Queen Elisabeth National Park, in Kasese district, western Uganda, bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo through Lake Edward.

Lake Katwe salt mine is a source of livelihood to over three thousand people in the area and in good times hundreds of salt miners at Lake Katwe can make a reasonable living, even if in self-slavery. Due to the hyper saline water that sucks moisture from their bodies and infuses them with toxic chemicals, there are severe health complications. The smell of hydrogen sulphide is all over the place.

For the women, when the female reproductive organs get in contact with this salty water, more often they develop uterine complications. The men on the other hand are also affected. When the male organs come into contact with this salty water they itch, and excessive scratching can cause wounds.

Surviving for a meager five dollars a day is a poor income. Coarse salt is still mined the way it was done over centuries years ago. Men, women and children all work at the mines for their own survival, including a large number of refugees from the nearby Democratic Republic of Congo. Workers extract three main products from Lake Katwe: blocks of rock salt used in curing hides; high quality salt crystals that can be sold as table salt; and salty mud that is used as salt licks for cattle.

Theses pictures show salt miners working on a salt pans pile on the shores of Lake Katwe.

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Uganda: Slaves of their own survival ...
Katwe,Village,Uganda
By Piero Pomponi World Focus
17 Aug 2012

Lake Katwe - Uganda - 2012-08-17- Formed about ten thousand years ago from a volcanic eruption, Lake Katwe lies in Queen Elisabeth National Park, in Kasese district, western Uganda, bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo through Lake Edward.

Lake Katwe salt mine is a source of livelihood to over three thousand people in the area and in good times hundreds of salt miners at Lake Katwe can make a reasonable living, even if in self-slavery. Due to the hyper saline water that sucks moisture from their bodies and infuses them with toxic chemicals, there are severe health complications. The smell of hydrogen sulphide is all over the place.

For the women, when the female reproductive organs get in contact with this salty water, more often they develop uterine complications. The men on the other hand are also affected. When the male organs come into contact with this salty water they itch, and excessive scratching can cause wounds.

Surviving for a meager five dollars a day is a poor income. Coarse salt is still mined the way it was done over centuries years ago. Men, women and children all work at the mines for their own survival, including a large number of refugees from the nearby Democratic Republic of Congo. Workers extract three main products from Lake Katwe: blocks of rock salt used in curing hides; high quality salt crystals that can be sold as table salt; and salty mud that is used as salt licks for cattle.

Theses pictures show salt miners working on a salt pans pile on the shores of Lake Katwe.

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Uganda: Slaves of their own survival ...
Katwe Village Uganda
By Piero Pomponi World Focus
17 Aug 2012

Lake Katwe - Uganda - 2012-08-17- Formed about ten thousand years ago from a volcanic eruption, Lake Katwe lies in Queen Elisabeth National Park, in Kasese district, western Uganda, bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo through Lake Edward.

Lake Katwe salt mine is a source of livelihood to over three thousand people in the area and in good times hundreds of salt miners at Lake Katwe can make a reasonable living, even if in self-slavery. Due to the hyper saline water that sucks moisture from their bodies and infuses them with toxic chemicals, there are severe health complications. The smell of hydrogen sulphide is all over the place.

For the women, when the female reproductive organs get in contact with this salty water, more often they develop uterine complications. The men on the other hand are also affected. When the male organs come into contact with this salty water they itch, and excessive scratching can cause wounds.

Surviving for a meager five dollars a day is a poor income. Coarse salt is still mined the way it was done over centuries years ago. Men, women and children all work at the mines for their own survival, including a large number of refugees from the nearby Democratic Republic of Congo. Workers extract three main products from Lake Katwe: blocks of rock salt used in curing hides; high quality salt crystals that can be sold as table salt; and salty mud that is used as salt licks for cattle.

Theses pictures show salt miners working on a salt pans pile on the shores of Lake Katwe.

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Ilva Taranto, Italy: steel industry, ...
Taranto, south Italy
By Giuseppe Carucci Lightouch International.Inc
26 Jul 2012

Large workers' protest Ilva, against closing decision issued by the judiciary for environmental disaster.

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Ilva Taranto, Italy: steel industry. ...
Taranto, south Italy
By Giuseppe Carucci Lightouch International.Inc
26 Jul 2012

Large workers' protest Ilva, against closing decision issued by the judiciary for environmental disaster.

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Ilva Taranto, Italy: steel industry, ...
Taranto, south Italy
By Giuseppe Carucci Lightouch International.Inc
26 Jul 2012

Large workers' protest Ilva, against closing decision issued by the judiciary for environmental disaster.

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Ilva Taranto, Italy: steel industry, ...
Taranto, south Italy
By Giuseppe Carucci Lightouch International.Inc
26 Jul 2012

Large workers' protest Ilva, against closing decision issued by the judiciary for environmental disaster.

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Ilva Taranto, Italy: steel industry, ...
Taranto, south Italy
By Giuseppe Carucci Lightouch International.Inc
25 Jul 2012

Large workers' protest Ilva, against closing decision issued by the judiciary for environmental disaster.

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Esplin120711_2385.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
11 Jul 2012

The rate of ocean acidification is expected to accelerate in the near future. Since the industrial revolution, ocean acidification has increased by 30%. Scientists believe that this rate is faster than anything previously experienced over the last 55 million years.

The problem is that even a mild change in PH levels has significant impact on animals with calcium carbonate shells or skeletons. They literally dissolve. Affected animals include krill and plankton as well as coral. This means that the bottom of the food web could potentially become extinct, and in turn so could fish, according to Zoologist Kent Carpenter: "If corals themselves are at risk of extinction and do in fact go extinct, that will most probably lead to a cascade effect where we will lose thousands and thousands of other species that depend on coral reefs.”

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Esplin120710_2336.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
10 Jul 2012

A fisherman wades through the shallows carrying a handful of possessions after a mornings fishing trip.

Attempts to educate fishermen have been made by the environmental community, and attitudes are slowly changing. The Coral Triangle Initiative announced that it saw a decrease in the use of destructive fishing methods in 2012. Although, they stated that other threats such as Population increase, pollution and sedimentation have increased considerably.

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Esplin120710_2384.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
10 Jul 2012

A fisherman on Palawan Island in the Philippines prepares for a fishing voyage out to sea.

Scientists have predicted that by 2100, global temperature rise could result in the extinction of coral in the Coral Triangle. This would lead to an 80% reduction in regional food production.

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Esplin120710_2333.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

Fishers tend to target bigger fish, which act as predators in the food web. Biologists have observed a change in the Philippines' species composition, and an increase of fishing for small oceanic fish – anchovies, etc. This is a good indication of overfishing, and of gradual stock collapse, as fishers can no longer catch larger fish to support themselves.

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Esplin120709_2331.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

The Philippines Government admits that all targeted species in the Philippines are showing signs of overfishing. Officials also recognise that the current approach to fishing is unsustainable. “Overall, the harvest rate of Philippine fisheries is approximately 30 percent higher than the maximum sustainable yield, which will likely trigger stock collapses in the absence of increased management.” (Department of Environment and Natural Resources)

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Esplin120709_2330.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

The majority of people within the Coral Triangle are living in poverty. This increases the social and economic importance of reefs, and reduces their ability to adapt to depleting fish supplies.

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Esplin120709_2382.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

The threats to the Coral Triangle are numerous, and often vary from site to site. As such there is not a single answer to the problems faced by these ecosystems. Nevertheless, wide ranges of solutions are being adopted in an attempt to curb this degradation. These include: Marine Protected areas (MPA), gear restrictions, and catch regulations.

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Esplin120709_2353.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

A decline in reef biodiversity does not only affect local communities and subsistence fishermen’s food security, though they are likely the hardest hit. According to the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), natural capital contributes significantly to manufacturing and service economies, that in-turn helps stabilise a nations food security. In their report ‘TEEB – The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for National and International Policy Makers’ the UNEP suggest one systemic cause for a lack of local will power to preserve natural resources. “Benefits depend on local stewardship, local knowledge and, in some cases, foregoing opportunities for economic development – yet people on the ground often receive little or no payment for the services they help to generate. This can make it more economically attractive to exploit the resource rather than preserve assets of global worth.”

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Esplin120709_2386.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

Government figures state that 67% of animal protein in the Philippines is comprised of fish and fish products. This makes fish the nations most important food source, next to rice.

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Esplin120709_2351.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

A fisherman prepares his line in a small wooden shack as his daughter plays behind. Surrounded by sublime tropical waters, the 7,000+ island shorelines of the Philippines are home to 40 million people - 45% of its population.

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Esplin120709_2350.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

Hook and line fishing techniques are seen as a solution compared to large scale commercial methods like trawler nets, that are considered dramatically unsustainable. Commercial fishing is having a drastic impact on fish stocks around the globe. Populations of targeted species such as Bluefin Tuna and Cod have reduced 90% since the 1960s, according to professors at the University of British Columbia.

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Esplin120709_2349.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

Hook and line fishing techniques are seen as a solution compared to large scale commercial methods like trawler nets, that are considered dramatically unsustainable. Commercial fishing is having a drastic impact on fish stocks around the globe. Populations of targeted species such as Bluefin Tuna and Cod have reduced 90% since the 1960s, according to professors at the University of British Columbia.