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Clashes in Idlib
Idlib, Syria
By info
23 Mar 2012

Idlib, Syria | March 21, 2012

People escaping the clashes in Idlib. In the sky, clouds of black smoke from bombings.

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Pacification (19 of 23)
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
By Rafael Fabres
12 Feb 2012

Soldado Fabiano Barros smokes a cigar in the shantytown of favela de Sao Carlos, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, February 25, 2012.

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Ilva Taranto, Italy: steel industry, ...
Taranto, South Italy
By Giuseppe Carucci Lightouch International.Inc
21 Jan 2012

Toxins in Taranto city, is the main cause of tumor's increase (10 percent) on the national value. In the picture:
"Tamburi" district, the nearest to the steel industry.

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Cabinet Office clashes Cairo 9
Al-Qasr Al-Aini Street, Cairo
By Jeffrey Bright
16 Dec 2011

Protesters start a fire during clashes with army soldiers at the cabinet near Tahrir Square in Cairo December 16, 2011. Stone-throwing demonstrators clashed with troops in central Cairo on Friday, witnesses said, in the worst violence since the start of Egypt's first free election in six decades. Al-Qasr Al-Aini Street, Cairo, Egypt. 16/12/2011

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Ilva Taranto, Italy: steel industry, ...
Taranto, south Italy
By Giuseppe Carucci Lightouch International.Inc
02 Jul 2011

Toxins in Taranto city, is the main cause of tumor's increase (10 percent) on the national value.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Sulphur Mines Kawah Ijen Indonesia. In East Java, Indonesia lies Kawah Ijen volcano, 2,600 meters tall (8,660ft), topped with a large caldera and a 200-meter-deep lake of sulphuric acid. An active vent at the edge of the lake is a source of elemental sulphur, and supports a mining operation. Escaping volcanic gases are channelled through a network of ceramic pipes, resulting in condensation of molten sulphur. The sulphur, which is deep red in colour when molten, pours slowly from the ends of these pipes and pools on the ground, turning bright yellow as it cools. The cooled material is broken into large pieces the miners hack chunks off with steel bars, braving extremely dangerous gases and liquids with minimal protection. The miners often use insufficient protection while working around the volcano and are susceptible to numerous respiratory complaints. The sulphur is then carried out in baskets by the miners. Typical loads range from 60–100 kilograms, and must be carried to the crater rim approximately 200 meters above before being carried several kilometres down the mountain. Most miners make this journey twice a day. The miners are paid by a nearby sugar refinery by the weight of sulphur transported 1 kg selling for 625 Indonesian Rupiah, the typical daily earnings were equivalent to approximately € 6 to € 9. The sulphur is then used for vulcanising rubber, bleaching sugar and other industrial processes.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 17
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

In the past 40 years, 74 miners have died after being overpowered by fumes that can suddenly swirl from fissures in the rock.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

The miners working with hammers and metal poles, break the deposits up into chunks and load them into baskets.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

The miners brake off pieces of sulphur with steel bars, braving extremely dangerous gases and liquids with minimal protection.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

In the past 40 years, 74 miners have died after being overpowered by fumes that can suddenly swirl from fissures in the rock.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

A miner collects pieces of sulphur. Sulphur has a range of uses from fertiliser to cosmetics to gun powder, but most of that mined at the volcano is supplied to a local factory where it is used to bleach sugar.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

A miner tries to escape the toxic smoke at Kawah Ijen sulphur mines.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

In the past 40 years, 74 miners have died after being overpowered by fumes that can suddenly swirl from fissures in the rock.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Miner becomes ingulfed in smoke as he brakes away chunkes of sulphur at Kawah Ijen sulphur mines,.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Escaping volcanic gases are channeled through a network of ceramic pipes, resulting in condensation of molten sulfur. The miners then break up the sulphur deposits and carry them out of the crater to a nearby sugar refinery.

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Sulfur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 5
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Miners load the heavy rocks of sulphur into baskets and carry them up to the rim of the crater. Then they carry the baskets, weighing up to 90kg to a further 3 kilometers collection point.

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Sulfur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 13
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

The miners have a protective gear beyond a damp cloth to cover the nose and mouth. Gloves and gas masks are not affordable . Men are paid approx. €9 a day.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 11
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

A miner takes a quick break during the afternoon. Extracting sulphur, once known as brimstone from Ijen volcano. Matches and white sugar are among the products made with sulphur from an active volcano in Indonesia.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 10
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

A miner is overcome by the toxic gases whilst collecting sulphur. The miners have little in the way of protective gear beyond a cloth to cover the nose and mouth.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

A miner is overcome by the toxic gases whilst collecting sulphur. The miners have little in the way of protective gear beyond a cloth to cover the nose and mouth.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

A miner maintains pipes that are driven into the fissures in the rock to extract sulphur from the mountain. Escaping volcanic gases are channeled through a network of ceramic pipes, resulting in condensation of molten sulphur.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 7
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

The status level of the active volcano was raised by the Indonesian government to 'alert' in July 2012 and this warning is still in effect today. Residents advised to stay clear of a 1.5-km radius from the crater. Nevertheless, miners still work daily amidst toxic fumes.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 24
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

The miners have little in the way of protective gear beyond a damp cloth to cover the nose and mouth. Gloves and gas masks are an unaffordable luxury for men paid approx. €9 a day.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 6
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

The poisonous clouds are hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide gases so concentrated they burn the eyes and throat, and can eventually dissolve the miners' teeth.

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Sulfur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 4
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Up to about 200 miners a day make a living here. They use metal rods to break off pieces of hardening yellow sulfur spilling out of pipes attached to the fumaroles.

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Sulfur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 3
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Many of the miners have no protective clothing. A few have basic masks, most rely on little more than a T-shirt gripped in their teeth.

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Sulfur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 23
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Inside the crater of the the Ijen volcano in East Java. The Ijen volcano is filled with sulfuric acid and it rises to 2,800m with a crater of over 200 meters deep and nearly one kilometer wide.

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Sulfur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 2
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Miners carry baskets of sulfur up from the crater of the Ijen volcano complex outside Banyuwangi.

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Sulfur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 1
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

A miner weighs his load at the local mining office. Typical loads range from 60–100 kilograms. Miners will make this trip two or three times a day, with typical earnings of approximately €9 per day.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

The work takes a toll on their bodies. But their bodies have, in turn, adapted, some have hyper-developed shoulder muscles from years of lugging heavy baskets up and down the mountain.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

The miners then carry the baskets, weighing up to 80kg, must be carried to the crater rim approximately 200 meters above before being carried a further three kilometres to a collection point.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Miner carry baskets of sulphur up from the crater of the Ijen volcano complex outside Banyuwangi, East Java.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Each man carries up to twice his body weight from the crater to the weighing station part way down the mountain.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

The miners are paid by a nearby sugar refinery by the weight of sulphur transported 1 kg selling for 625 Indonesian Rupiah, the typical daily earnings were equivalent to approximately € 6 to € 9. The sulphur is then used for vulcanising rubber, bleaching sugar and other industrial processes.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

MIner struggles to lift heavy basket loaded with sulphur. A load is typically 50 – 70 kg, though according to some sources it may be 80 or even 100 kg.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Miners often become overpowered by fumes that can suddenly swirl from fissures in the rock.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

A miner collects pieces of sulphur. Sulphur has a range of uses from fertiliser to cosmetics to gun powder, but most of that mined at the volcano is supplied to a local factory where it is used to bleach sugar.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia 22
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

Many of the miners have no protective clothing. A few have basic masks, most rely on little more than a cloth gripped in their teeth.

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Sulphur Mines at Kawah Ijen Indonesia
Kawah Ijen, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
19 Jan 2011

A miner collecting sulphur tries to escape the toxic smoke at Kawah Ijen sulphur mines.